Active substances: Ciprofloxacin
However he should check whether the data on which he is basing his decision really apply to the patient for whom he is making the treatment decision i. Due to resistance issues in intensive care units and in oncology, is it imperative to use different antibiotic groups to minimize selection pressure, therefore off-label use of microbiological active drugs is justified e.
Characteristics of antibiotics Penicillins The penicillin group of antibiotics is subdivided according to the chemical structure of the agents into benzylpenicillins, aminopenicillins, acylaminopenicillins and isoxazolyl penicillins.
Accordingly, penicillins show widely divergent behaviour towards pathogens and beta-lactamases.
Penicillins are considered bactericidal with time-dependent killing kinetics. Post-antibiotic effects are limited to a short period of time.
Refer to chapter 3 for information on the optimum mode of application. Penicillins show large variations in terms of their pharmacokinetic characteristics. The distribution is predominantly extracellular, with a distribution volume of 0.
Penetration of penicillins in cerebrospinal fluid CSF is satisfactory in case of inflamed meninges and adequate dosage. The plasma half-life in patients with normal renal function is in the range of 1 to 2 hours.
The antibacterial spectrum of penicillins varies from narrow to extensive according to subgroup and is the key determinant for decisions on clinical use.
Benzylpenicillin Penicillin G The antimicrobial spectrum of penicillin G covers most strains of streptococci, pneumococci, meningococci, spirochetes, and some anaerobic pathogens such as clostridia and Actinomyces species.
Penicillin G is rarely effective against staphylococci due to beta-lactamases or altered binding proteins. The licensing of penicillin G allows its use for almost any systemic and local infection independent of the localization if the infection is caused by a penicillin-susceptible pathogen.